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One of the hardest biological materials discovered in Amazon fish armor

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One of the hardest materials in the animal kingdom belongs to the Amazon fish, Arapai Magas, which reaches a very large size and weighs up to 250 pounds. This fish usually lives in lakes and waters where piranhas are, and boasts armor made of very hard scales that cannot be torn or broken. Therefore, it acts as a barrier against greedy piranhas.

This was discovered by researchers at the University of California, San Diego and Berkeley, and their work was published in Matter. Of course, the first idea is the possible production of similar materials that may be useful in different areas of human activity, as happens in all cases where materials produced by animals with specific characteristics are discovered.

Arapaima scales have a hard and flexible inner layer. This layer is connected to the upper layer of scales via mineralized collagen. This structure is similar to that found on the base of a bulletproof vest. Bulletproof vests are also made of different flexible layers interspersed with hard plastic. However, while bulletproof vest materials are connected only by adhesives, Arapai fish scales are connected to each other at the atomic level. They grow together and weave much more resistant armor, virtually a single solid piece.

According to Berkeley material scientist Robert Richie, the secret lies in mineralized collagen, the binder of the entire structure. Arapaima’s collagen layer is much thicker than what other fish use, and the scales themselves are very thick, at least as thick as rice grains.

If you can mimic such a structure, it may be possible to build synthetic armor that is not only waterproof, but virtually immortal.


Related articles & sources:

https://www.cell.com/matter/fulltext/S2590-2385(19)30229-2

https://wikipedia.org/wiki/Arapaima_gigas

Image Souce:

https://nationalzoo.si.edu/sites/default/files/animals/arapaima-003.jpg

Steve Moore

I graduated from Miami Dade College and am now a licensed therapist. Previously I worked as an editor for American Scientist and developed a strong passion and interest in new scientific research, particularly relating to behavior and psychology. Xaski News is my small venture to bring easy-to-understand scientific news to the masses, free of charge and without ads and paywalls.

2637 Steve Hunt Road, Miami Florida, 33128
[email protected]
786-310-7352
Steve Moore
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Science

Scientists study genes regulating dog coat colours

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Studying a breed of Irish setter, a study team at UC Davis School of Veterinary Medicine discovered a new genetic element that underlies the regulation of coat color in dogs. Specifically, the researchers studied the Nova Scotia Duck Tolling Retriever, a medium-sized hunting dog, often referred to as a toller.

According to the researchers, the particular color of the coat of these dogs derives from two particular pigments, yellow (pheomelanin) and black (eumelanin). These two pigments, in turn, are regulated by the MC1R genes (melanocortin receptor 1) and the agouti signaling protein (ASIP). Depending on the mutation of MC1R, the coat of these dogs may produce more or less pheomelanin and appear more or less yellow or red.

Specifically, dogs with a larger number of copies of the DNA region on chromosome 15 have more intense coat colors while animals with a smaller number of copies have a lighter coat.

The study, which appeared in Genes, shows how much there is still to know about the different coat colours of dogs, even of other breeds. The study was carried out by senior author Danika Bannasch and graduate student Kalie Weich.

Steve Moore

I graduated from Miami Dade College and am now a licensed therapist. Previously I worked as an editor for American Scientist and developed a strong passion and interest in new scientific research, particularly relating to behavior and psychology. Xaski News is my small venture to bring easy-to-understand scientific news to the masses, free of charge and without ads and paywalls.

2637 Steve Hunt Road, Miami Florida, 33128
[email protected]
786-310-7352
Steve Moore
Continue Reading

Science

According to a famous designer, future architects will be useless due to artificial intelligence

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According to New York designer Sebastian Errazuriz, architects are among the many occupations and activities that could be literally replaced by advances in technology related to artificial intelligence. Architect and designer Elaziriz later made these statements into a series of films published on his Instagram account and later covered them in a statement.

According to ErraZuriz, it is almost impossible for an architect to compete with an artificial intelligence algorithm, and this will become a reality in the near future, so the architect himself said that “90% of the work is at risk. It is important to warn of this as soon as possible.”

In this regard, in one of the Instagram posts, the designer released an animation developed by new software that can generate building plans in a fully automated way. And this is what can happen today. Imagine this kind of technology 1000 times more powerful now.

Machine learning is becoming more and more proficient, and software can literally store large amounts of data and knowledge related to building technology in seconds. In the future, Ella Zuriz predicts that by setting various features such as budget, size, etc., getting a project in seconds will give customers more details about the type of building they want.

The same customer can “visit” the building through augmented reality technology, even before the foundation is built.

According to Elaziriz, the only architect who will survive are architects practicing architecture as an art, but that is a small elite, and at best only 1% of all architects. Everything else is doomed.


Related articles & sources:

https://www.dezeen.com/2019/10/22/artificial-intelligence-ai-architects-jobs-sebastian-errazuriz/

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sebastian_ErraZuriz

https://www.instagram.com/tv/B3jzjj0joCf/

Image Souce:

http://futurearchitectureplatform.org/media/froala/ai-1.jpg

Steve Moore

I graduated from Miami Dade College and am now a licensed therapist. Previously I worked as an editor for American Scientist and developed a strong passion and interest in new scientific research, particularly relating to behavior and psychology. Xaski News is my small venture to bring easy-to-understand scientific news to the masses, free of charge and without ads and paywalls.

2637 Steve Hunt Road, Miami Florida, 33128
[email protected]
786-310-7352
Steve Moore
Continue Reading

Science

Arctic permafrost: imminent thawing more serious than previously thought

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Scientists have repeatedly mentioned the dangers associated with melting Arctic permafrost. This type of soil is a risk that stems from the fact that it is a truly massive carbon deposit that increases dramatically when released into the environment and has unpredictable effects. The amount of carbon dioxide in the air further accelerates the ongoing global warming process.

A new warning has been issued, published today at Nature Climate Change. This is a study with a decisive tone, saying that permafrost is melting more and more in the northern part of the planet, and is probably releasing much more carbon than previously calculated. The same researchers predict that CO2 emissions in the environment will increase by 17% “in moderate mitigation scenarios” until 2100.

Permafrost carbon network researchers analyzed more than 100 sites in the Arctic and estimated that permafrost released an average of 1662 teragrams of carbon in the winter of 2003-2017. This is far more than previous studies had estimated.

And due to the lack of sites considered in view of the vastness of areas where permafrost is expanding, it is still a limited study. For example, if you consider the entire Arctic, the results can be even more alarming.


Related articles & sources:

https://www.sciencemag.org/news/2019/10/global-impacts-thawing-arctic-permafrost-may-be-imminent

https://www.nature.com/articles/s41558-019-0592-8

Image Souce:

https://cdn.vox-cdn.com/thumbor/QdWnGSo-CZ6WPbTEE0X-gH47zNw=/0x0:4240×2478/1200×0/filters:focal(0x0:4240×2478):no_upscale()/cdn.vox-cdn.com/uploads/chorus_asset/file/9107721/DSC00291.jpg

Steve Moore

I graduated from Miami Dade College and am now a licensed therapist. Previously I worked as an editor for American Scientist and developed a strong passion and interest in new scientific research, particularly relating to behavior and psychology. Xaski News is my small venture to bring easy-to-understand scientific news to the masses, free of charge and without ads and paywalls.

2637 Steve Hunt Road, Miami Florida, 33128
[email protected]
786-310-7352
Steve Moore
Continue Reading

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