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One of the hardest biological materials discovered in Amazon fish armor

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One of the hardest materials in the animal kingdom belongs to the Amazon fish, Arapai Magas, which reaches a very large size and weighs up to 250 pounds. This fish usually lives in lakes and waters where piranhas are, and boasts armor made of very hard scales that cannot be torn or broken. Therefore, it acts as a barrier against greedy piranhas.

This was discovered by researchers at the University of California, San Diego and Berkeley, and their work was published in Matter. Of course, the first idea is the possible production of similar materials that may be useful in different areas of human activity, as happens in all cases where materials produced by animals with specific characteristics are discovered.

Arapaima scales have a hard and flexible inner layer. This layer is connected to the upper layer of scales via mineralized collagen. This structure is similar to that found on the base of a bulletproof vest. Bulletproof vests are also made of different flexible layers interspersed with hard plastic. However, while bulletproof vest materials are connected only by adhesives, Arapai fish scales are connected to each other at the atomic level. They grow together and weave much more resistant armor, virtually a single solid piece.

According to Berkeley material scientist Robert Richie, the secret lies in mineralized collagen, the binder of the entire structure. Arapaima’s collagen layer is much thicker than what other fish use, and the scales themselves are very thick, at least as thick as rice grains.

If you can mimic such a structure, it may be possible to build synthetic armor that is not only waterproof, but virtually immortal.


Related articles & sources:

https://www.cell.com/matter/fulltext/S2590-2385(19)30229-2

https://wikipedia.org/wiki/Arapaima_gigas

Image Souce:

https://nationalzoo.si.edu/sites/default/files/animals/arapaima-003.jpg

Steve Moore

I graduated from Miami Dade College and am now a licensed therapist. Previously I worked as an editor for American Scientist and developed a strong passion and interest in new scientific research, particularly relating to behavior and psychology. Xaski News is my small venture to bring easy-to-understand scientific news to the masses, free of charge and without ads and paywalls.

2637 Steve Hunt Road, Miami Florida, 33128
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Science

According to a famous designer, future architects will be useless due to artificial intelligence

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According to New York designer Sebastian Errazuriz, architects are among the many occupations and activities that could be literally replaced by advances in technology related to artificial intelligence. Architect and designer Elaziriz later made these statements into a series of films published on his Instagram account and later covered them in a statement.

According to ErraZuriz, it is almost impossible for an architect to compete with an artificial intelligence algorithm, and this will become a reality in the near future, so the architect himself said that “90% of the work is at risk. It is important to warn of this as soon as possible.”

In this regard, in one of the Instagram posts, the designer released an animation developed by new software that can generate building plans in a fully automated way. And this is what can happen today. Imagine this kind of technology 1000 times more powerful now.

Machine learning is becoming more and more proficient, and software can literally store large amounts of data and knowledge related to building technology in seconds. In the future, Ella Zuriz predicts that by setting various features such as budget, size, etc., getting a project in seconds will give customers more details about the type of building they want.

The same customer can “visit” the building through augmented reality technology, even before the foundation is built.

According to Elaziriz, the only architect who will survive are architects practicing architecture as an art, but that is a small elite, and at best only 1% of all architects. Everything else is doomed.


Related articles & sources:

https://www.dezeen.com/2019/10/22/artificial-intelligence-ai-architects-jobs-sebastian-errazuriz/

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sebastian_ErraZuriz

https://www.instagram.com/tv/B3jzjj0joCf/

Image Souce:

http://futurearchitectureplatform.org/media/froala/ai-1.jpg

Steve Moore

I graduated from Miami Dade College and am now a licensed therapist. Previously I worked as an editor for American Scientist and developed a strong passion and interest in new scientific research, particularly relating to behavior and psychology. Xaski News is my small venture to bring easy-to-understand scientific news to the masses, free of charge and without ads and paywalls.

2637 Steve Hunt Road, Miami Florida, 33128
[email protected]
786-310-7352
Steve Moore
Continue Reading

Science

Arctic permafrost: imminent thawing more serious than previously thought

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Scientists have repeatedly mentioned the dangers associated with melting Arctic permafrost. This type of soil is a risk that stems from the fact that it is a truly massive carbon deposit that increases dramatically when released into the environment and has unpredictable effects. The amount of carbon dioxide in the air further accelerates the ongoing global warming process.

A new warning has been issued, published today at Nature Climate Change. This is a study with a decisive tone, saying that permafrost is melting more and more in the northern part of the planet, and is probably releasing much more carbon than previously calculated. The same researchers predict that CO2 emissions in the environment will increase by 17% “in moderate mitigation scenarios” until 2100.

Permafrost carbon network researchers analyzed more than 100 sites in the Arctic and estimated that permafrost released an average of 1662 teragrams of carbon in the winter of 2003-2017. This is far more than previous studies had estimated.

And due to the lack of sites considered in view of the vastness of areas where permafrost is expanding, it is still a limited study. For example, if you consider the entire Arctic, the results can be even more alarming.


Related articles & sources:

https://www.sciencemag.org/news/2019/10/global-impacts-thawing-arctic-permafrost-may-be-imminent

https://www.nature.com/articles/s41558-019-0592-8

Image Souce:

https://cdn.vox-cdn.com/thumbor/QdWnGSo-CZ6WPbTEE0X-gH47zNw=/0x0:4240×2478/1200×0/filters:focal(0x0:4240×2478):no_upscale()/cdn.vox-cdn.com/uploads/chorus_asset/file/9107721/DSC00291.jpg

Steve Moore

I graduated from Miami Dade College and am now a licensed therapist. Previously I worked as an editor for American Scientist and developed a strong passion and interest in new scientific research, particularly relating to behavior and psychology. Xaski News is my small venture to bring easy-to-understand scientific news to the masses, free of charge and without ads and paywalls.

2637 Steve Hunt Road, Miami Florida, 33128
[email protected]
786-310-7352
Steve Moore
Continue Reading

Science

The eROSITA space telescope provides an amazing image

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Built by the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, the first image of Erosita onboard the Spectrum-RG Russia-German Space Observatory reveals a remarkable image. From October 13th, all seven modules of the X-ray telescope equipped with a camera were in operation to observe the sky. Among the first images are images of the new Magellanic Cloud and two interacting galaxy clusters that are 800 million light-years away from us.

These are A3391 and A3395, two galaxy clusters taken from eROSITA. This new image allowed researchers to confirm the fact that the two clusters actually interact and shine intensely with X-rays due to the large amount of very hot gas space between galaxies.

The same researcher also confirmed that a kind of “bridge” exists between the two clusters. This confirms the fact that they are interacting because they are attracted by gravity.

According to Peter Predehl, one of the researchers using eROSITA, the potential of this space telescope is thanks to a state-of-the-art CCD camera featuring high sensitivity and “abnormal” spectral and temporal resolution. For example, for the Large Magellanic Cloud, eROSITA can also identify supernova remnants such as SN1987A. Thanks to these resolution levels, researchers were able to confirm, among other things, that an explosion occurred in 1987 and the shock waves generated by this supernova spreading through the interstellar medium are weakening.

Researchers then identified many other celestial bodies in the Large Magellanic Cloud and those far away, especially the very distant active galactic nuclei whose radiation “penetrates” the hot gas in the Magellanic Cloud.

Currently, researchers conduct a four-year survey. Thanks to that, at least 100,000 clusters of X-ray galaxies and millions of black holes in the center of the galaxy were discovered, as specified by Andrea Merloni, a researcher of the entire X-ray sky map eROSITA project. A huge amount of data and catalogs containing millions of all kinds of objects have been used by astronomers for decades.


Related articles & sources:

https://www.mpg.de/14056201/first-light-erosita

Image Souce:

https://www.dlr.de/content/en/images/2019/4/erosita-galaxy-clusters.jpeg;jsessionid=BDC0B98D625AB03D18D410062B925845.delivery-replication1?__blob=normal&v=2__ifc1920w

Steve Moore

I graduated from Miami Dade College and am now a licensed therapist. Previously I worked as an editor for American Scientist and developed a strong passion and interest in new scientific research, particularly relating to behavior and psychology. Xaski News is my small venture to bring easy-to-understand scientific news to the masses, free of charge and without ads and paywalls.

2637 Steve Hunt Road, Miami Florida, 33128
[email protected]
786-310-7352
Steve Moore
Continue Reading

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